and internet access
Poor infrastructure is an issue in both rural and urban areas, where access to power and the internet can make it hard to communicate, mobilise, share sources, and publish work. These conditions also fluctuate inconsistently.
Bureaucracy and other state pressures can make it very hard for alternative journalists or organisations to be registered and therefore deemed to be operating legally. Oppositional websites and platforms are frequently shut down and journalists arrested.
labelled as ‘fake news’
State actors often use their own mainstream media platforms, or those used by activists (such as Facebook), to attack and criminalise opposing media sources and narratives, dismissing them as ‘fake news’.